If something can be done more efficiently, we should always strive for it. This passion for development gave us a wheel, electricity and other things that have become a part and parcel of our lives. What is more, today efficiency is not the only important factor leading us forward anymore. In agriculture, as well as in other sectors, sustainability has become one of the key players creating the rules.
This is why we aim to develop an innovative methodology that will allow the evaluation of farm activities and the selection of an efficient model of sustainable farming based on the soil, environmental conditions, farm size, agricultural branch and optimal use of machinery.
The methodology being developed consists of the data collection and processing steps. The collected processed spatial data is displayed in a digital environment and in GIS map layers.
First of all, at the data collection stage, the upper humus horizon of the soil in the farm fields is investigated using spectral photography and laboratory tests to determine the amount of organic matter in it. From the obtained and processed spectral images, the stoniness of the fields is evaluated and after applying the spectral indicators the moisture content of the soil cover is determined. After that, remote sensing methods are used to create a 3D spatial model of farm fields.
Then, methods for calculating various spectral parameters in crops are used to assess the overall physiological characteristics and stress of plants. The spectral parameters of GNDVI, MCARI, RVI, LAI, MSI, WI are calculated with the help of spectral images. The values of these indicators affect crop yields, on which farm incomes depend. The development of sustainable farming can be ensured by taking into account the natural soil fertility characteristics and the sustainable use of fertilizers.
Finally, the evaluation of the economic activity of the surveyed farms is performed. After analyzing the data of soil and plants of farms of different sizes and structures and economic indicators of farm performance evaluation, the methodology of sustainable farming will be developed and verified.
One of the main problems of modern agriculture is the constantly deteriorating soil quality due to intensive tillage, which in turn leads to lower yields, lower product quality, higher fertilization costs and has a negative impact on farm economic performance. The implementation of the sustainable farming model on the farm will create preconditions for the increase of economic efficiency and income, improvement of production quality and will reduce negative consequences of intensive farming on the environment.