One of the main problems of modern agriculture is the constantly deteriorating soil quality due to intensive tillage, which in turn leads to lower yields, lower product quality, higher fertilization costs and has a negative impact on farm economic performance. In order to reduce the negative consequences of intensive farming, it is necessary to introduce sustainable farming methods.
The project aims to develop an innovative methodology that will allow the evaluation of farm activities and the selection of an efficient model of sustainable farming, taking into account the soil, environmental conditions, farm size, agricultural branch and optimal use of machinery. The implementation of the sustainable farming model on the farm will create preconditions for the increase of economic efficiency and income, improvement of production quality and will reduce the negative impact of farming on the environment.
During the project, a methodology of sustainable farming is being developed, which includes remote spectral spatial research of farm crop soil and plants, complex economic assessment of farm resources. The methodology consists of the data collection and processing steps required for the spatial identification and assessment of soil characteristics of farms, the general physiological characteristics of crops grown and the stress experienced, and the analysis and display of data. The collected processed spatial data is displayed in a digital environment and in GIS map layers.
At the data collection stage, the upper humus horizon of the soil in the farm fields is investigated using spectral photography and laboratory tests to determine the amount of organic matter in it. From the obtained and processed spectral images, the stoniness of the fields is evaluated, after applying the spectral indicators - the moisture content of the soil cover. Remote sensing methods are used to create a 3D spatial model of farm fields.
Methods for calculating various spectral parameters in crops are used to assess the overall physiological characteristics and stress of plants. The spectral parameters of GNDVI, MCARI, RVI, LAI, MSI, WI are calculated with the help of spectral images. The values of these indicators affect crop yields, on which farm incomes depend. The development of sustainable farming can be ensured by taking into account the natural soil fertility characteristics and the sustainable use of fertilizers.
The evaluation of the economic activity of the surveyed farms is performed - farm size, crop structure, yield, used machinery and management, farm material resources and technical base, cost structure. After analysing the data of soil and plants of farms of different sizes and structures and economic indicators of farm performance evaluation, the methodology of sustainable farming will be developed and verified. Applying this methodology, additional preconditions are created for the increase of farm income, reduction of costs, reduction of environmental pollution.